The process used by this kind of program is called a checksum, and it basically consists in applying a hash function that returns a fix length chain. That chain has to be compared to the one that is provided together with the file that you are verifying to find out if it is corrupt or not.
There are several kinds of checksums, the majority of which are supported by Marxio File Checksum Verifier (MD4, MD5, CRC32, SHA-256, SHA-384, SHA-512, HAVAL 256, TIGER 192, RIPEMD-128, RIPEMD-160).
Furthermore, you'll find two advantages in this application: on the one hand it's a program that you can take with you comfortably on a USB pendrive and, on the other, it has a great amount of options to be able to configure it to your own liking.
Download Marxio File Checksum Verifier and discover the best tool to check your files.